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Thursday, 5 October 2017

हिमाचल : इन दो शहरों के बीच आज से शुरू होने जा रही है हवाई सेवा

हिमाचल : दो शहरों के बीच आज से नई हवाई सेवा शुरू होने जा रही है। सुबह 10 बजे केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य मंत्री जगत प्रकाश नड्डा तथा केंद्रीय नागरिक उड्डयन मंत्री जयंत सिन्हा हवाई सेवा को हरी झंडी दिखाएंगे।
एयर इंडिया की नई हवाई सेवा भुंतर एयरपोर्ट से भुंतर-चंडीगढ़ के लिए शुरू होगी। सुबह केंद्रीय स्वास्थ्य मंत्री जगत प्रकाश नड्डा तथा केंद्रीय नागरिक उड्डयन मंत्री जयंत सिन्हा हवाई सेवा को हरी झंडी दिखाएंगे। इसके लिए एयरपोर्ट अथॉरिटी ने सभी तैयारियों को पूरा कर दिया है।

भुंतर-चंडीगढ़ के बीच शुरू हो रही एयर इंडिया की 72 सीटर नई हवाई सेवा से कुल्लू-मनाली के पर्यटन को पंख लेंगे। समारोह में मंडी संसदीय क्षेत्र के सांसद राम स्वरूप शर्मा, सदर विधायक महेश्वर सिंह, मनाली के विधायक गोविंद ठाकुर मौजूद रहेंगे।
सांसद रामस्वरूप शर्मा ने कहा कि भुंतर-चंडीगढ़ हवाई सेवा से प्रदेश के पर्यटन कारोबार को पंख लगेंगे। उधर, विधायक गोविंद सिंह ठाकुर ने सेवा शुरू करने के लिए प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी, केंद्रीय मंत्री जेपी नड्डा और केंद्रीय नागरिक उड्डयन मंत्री जयंत सिन्हा का आभार जताया।

TCS Technical Interview Questions and Answers

TCS Possible Technical Interview Questions| for new Campus Recruitment

 The Campus Interview

This interview usually takes 45 minutes to an hour and may have one or two interviewers. One interviewer may focus on your communication skills, self-management skills and background by asking behavioral questions. The other will focus on your technical capabilities.

The Phone Interview

If TCS not coming to your school this fall, and you have probably submitted your resume online. You look great on paper and they would like to have an employment discussion with candidate. They will set up a mutually-convenient date and time for your phone interview. Your interviewer will assess your communication skills, self-management skills and background by asking behavioral questions. He / she may also assess your technical ability. If the phone interview goes well, you will be asked to join us for an in-person interview.

TCS Technical interview Questions
1. What is your strongest programming language (Java, ASP, C, C++, VB, HTML, C#, etc.)? 
   Point to remember: Before interview You should decide your Favorite programming language and be prepared based on that question.

2.Differences between C and Java?
1.JAVA is Object-Oriented while C is procedural.
2.Java is an Interpreted language while C is a compiled language.
3.C is a low-level language while JAVA is a high-level language.
4.C uses the top-down approach while JAVA uses the bottom-up approach.
5.Pointer go backstage in JAVA while C requires explicit handling of pointers.
6.The Behind-the-scenes Memory Management with JAVA & The User-Based Memory Management in C.
7.JAVA supports Method Overloading while C does not support overloading at all.
8.Unlike C, JAVA does not support Preprocessors, & does not really them.
9.The standard Input & Output Functions--C uses the printf & scanf functions as its standard input & output while JAVA uses the System.out.print & functions.
10.Exception Handling in JAVA And the errors & crashes in C.

3.In header files whether functions are declared or defined?
Functions are declared within header file. That is function prototypes exist in a header file,not function bodies. They are defined in library (lib).

4.What are the different storage classes in C ?
There are four types of storage classes in C. They are extern, register, auto and static

5.What does static variable mean?
Static is an access qualifier. If a variable is declared as static inside a function, the scope is limited to the function,but it will exists for the life time of the program. Values will be persisted between successive 
calls to a function

6.How do you print an address ?
Use %p in printf to print the address.

7.What are macros? what are its advantages and disadvantages? 
Macros are processor directive which will be replaced at compile time.
The disadvantage with macros is that they just replace the code they are not function calls. similarly the advantage is they can reduce time for replacing the same values.
8.Difference between pass by reference and pass by value? 
Pass by value just passes the value from caller to calling function so the called function cannot modify the values in caller function. But Pass by reference will pass the address to the caller function instead of value if called function requires to modify any value it can directly modify.

9.What is an object?
Object is a software bundle of variables and related methods. Objects have state and behavior

10.What is a class?
Class is a user-defined data type in C++. It can be created to solve a particular kind of problem. After creation the user need not know the specifics of the working of a class.

11.What is the difference between class and structure?
Structure: Initially (in C) a structure was used to bundle different type of data types together to perform a particular functionality. But C++ extended the structure to contain functions also. 
The major difference is that all declarations inside a structure are by default public.
Class: Class is a successor of Structure. By default all the members inside the class are private.

12. What is ponter?
Pointer is a variable in a program is something with a name, the value of which can vary. The way the compiler and linker handles this is that it assigns 
a specific block of memory within the computer to hold the value of that variable.

13.What is the difference between null and void pointer?
A Null pointer has the value 0. void pointer is a generic pointer introduced by ANSI. Generic pointer can hold the address of any data type. 

14.what is function overloading 
   Function overloading is a feature of C++ that allows us to create multiple functions with the same name, so long as they have different parameters.Consider the following function:
   int Add(int nX, int nY)
      return nX + nY;

15.What is function overloading and operator overloading?

Function overloading: C++ enables several functions of the same name to be defined, as long as these functions have different sets of parameters (at least as far as their types are concerned). This capability is called function overloading. When an overloaded function is called, the C++ compiler selects the proper function by examining the number, types and order of the arguments in the call. Function overloading is commonly used to create several functions of the same name that perform similar tasks but on different data types.
Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to be redefined so that they work on objects of user-defined classes. Overloaded operators are syntactic sugar for equivalent function calls. They form a pleasant facade that doesn't add anything fundamental to the language (but they can improve understandability and reduce maintenance costs).

16.what is friend function?
A friend function for a class is used in object-oriented programming to allow access to public, private, or protected data in the class from the outside.
Normally, a function that is not a member of a class cannot access such information; neither can an external class. Occasionally, such access will be advantageous for the programmer. Under these circumstances, the function or external class can be declared as a friend of the class using the friend keyword.

17.What do you mean by inline function?
The idea behind inline functions is to insert the code of a called function at the point where the function is called. If done carefully, this can improve the application's performance in exchange for increased compile time and possibly (but not always) an increase in the size of the generated binary executables.

18. Tell me something about abstract classes?
An abstract class is a class which does not fully represent an object. Instead, it represents a broad range of different classes of objects. However, this representation extends only to the features that those classes of objects have in common. Thus, an abstract class provides only a partial description of its objects.
19.What is the difference between realloc() and free()?
The free subroutine frees a block of memory previously allocated by the malloc subroutine. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer. If the Pointer parameter is a null value, no action will occur. The realloc subroutine changes the size of the block of memory pointed to by the Pointer parameter to the number of bytes specified by the Size parameter and returns a new pointer to the block. The pointer specified by the Pointer parameter must have been created with the malloc, calloc, or realloc subroutines and not been deallocated with the free or realloc subroutines. Undefined results occur if the Pointer parameter is not a valid pointer.

20.What is the difference between an array and a list?
Array is collection of homogeneous elements. List is collection of heterogeneous elements.
For Array memory allocated is static and continuous. For List memory allocated is dynamic and Random.
Array: User need not have to keep in track of next memory allocation.
List: User has to keep in Track of next location where memory is allocated.
Array uses direct access of stored members, list uses sequential access for members.

21.What are the differences between structures and arrays?
Arrays is a group of similar data types but Structures can be group of different data types

22.What is data structure?
A data structure is a way of organizing data that considers not only the items stored, but also their relationship to each other. Advance knowledge about the relationship between data items allows designing of efficient algorithms for the manipulation of data.
23. Can you list out the areas in which data structures are applied extensively?
Compiler Design,
Operating System,
Database Management System,
Statistical analysis package,
Numerical Analysis,
Artificial Intelligence,

24.What are the advantages of inheritance?

It permits code reusability. Reusability saves time in program development. It encourages the reuse of proven and debugged high-quality software, thus reducing problem after a system becomes functional.

25. what are the two integrity rules used in DBMS?
The two types of  integrity rules are referential integrity rules and entity integrity rules. Referential integrity rules dictate that a database does not contain orphan foreign key values. This means that 
A primary key value cannot be modified if the value is used as a foreign key in a child table. Entity integrity dictates that the primary key value cannot be Null.

26. Tell something about deadlock and how can we prevent dead lock?
In an operating system, a deadlock is a situation which occurs when a process enters a waiting state because a resource requested by it is being held by another waiting process, which in turn is waiting for another resource. If a process is unable to change its state indefinitely because the resources requested by it are being used by other waiting process, then the system is said to be in a deadlock.
Mutual Exclusion: At least one resource must be non-shareable.[1] Only one process can use the resource at any given instant of time.
Hold and Wait or Resource Holding: A process is currently holding at least one resource and requesting additional resources which are being held by other processes.
No Preemption: The operating system must not de-allocate resources once they have been allocated; they must be released by the holding process voluntarily.
Circular Wait: A process must be waiting for a resource which is being held by another process, which in turn is waiting for the first process to release the resource. In general, there is a set of waiting processes, P = {P1, P2, ..., PN}, such that P1 is waiting for a resource held by P2, P2 is waiting for a resource held by P3 and so on till PN is waiting for a resource held by P1.[1][7]

Thus prevention of deadlock is possible by ensuring that at least one of the four conditions cannot hold.
27. What is Insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort( basic differences among the functionality of the three sorts and not the exact algorithms)

28. What is Doubly link list?
 A doubly linked list is a linked data structure that consists of a set of sequentially linked records called nodes. Each node contains two fields, called links, that are references to the previous and to the next node in the sequence of nodes. The beginning and ending nodes' previous and next links, respectively, point to some kind of terminator, typically a sentinel node or null, to facilitate traversal of the list. If there is only one sentinel node, then the list is circularly linked via the sentinel node. It can be conceptualized as two singly linked lists formed from the same data items, but in opposite sequential orders.
29.What is data abstraction?  what are the three levels of data abstraction with Example?
Abstraction is the process of recognizing and focusing on important characteristics of a situation or object and leaving/filtering out the un-wanted characteristics of that situation or object.
Lets take a person as example and see how that person is abstracted in various situations

A doctor sees (abstracts) the person as patient. The doctor is interested in name, height, weight, age, blood group, previous or existing diseases etc of a person
An employer sees (abstracts) a person as Employee. The employer is interested in name, age, health, degree of study, work experience etc of a person. 

Abstraction is the basis for software development. Its through abstraction we define the essential aspects of a system. The process of identifying the abstractions for a given system is called as Modeling (or object modeling).
Three levels of data abstraction are:
1. Physical level : how the data is stored physically and where it is stored in database.
2. Logical level : what information or data is stored in the database. eg: Database administrator
3.View level : end users work on view level. if any amendment is made it can be saved by other name.

30.What is command line argument?
Getting the arguments from command prompt in c is known as command line arguments. In c main function has three arguments.They are:
Argument counter
Argument vector
Environment vector

31.Advantages of a macro over a function?
Macro gets to see the Compilation environment, so it can expand #defines. It is expanded by the preprocessor. 

32.What are the different storage classes in C? 

33.Which header file should you include if you are to develop a function which can accept variable number of arguments?

34.What is cache memory ?
Cache Memory is used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory 
which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are cached memory locations, the average
latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory.

35.What is debugger?
A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs
36. Const char *p , char const *p What is the difference between the above two?   
1) const char *p - Pointer to a Constant char ('p' isn't modifiable but the pointer is)
2) char const *p - Also pointer to a constant Char 
However if you had something like:
char * const p - This declares 'p' to be a constant pointer to an char. (Char p is modifiable but the pointer isn't)

37. What is Memory Alignment?  
Data structure alignment is the way data is arranged and accessed in computer memory. It consists of two separate but related issues: data alignment and data structure padding. 

38.Explain the difference between 'operator new' and the 'new' operator?   
The difference between the two is that operator new just allocates raw memory, nothing else. The new operator starts by using operator new to allocate memory, but then it invokes the constructor for the right type of object, so the result is a real live object created in that memory. If that object contains any other objects (either embedded or as base classes) those constructors as invoked as well.

39. Difference between delete and delete[]?    
The keyword delete is used to destroy the single variable memory created dynamically which is pointed by single pointer variable.
Eg: int *r=new(int)
the memory pointed by r can be deleted by delete r.
delete [] is used to destroy array of memory pointed by single pointer variable.
Eg:int *r=new(int a[10])
The memory pointed by r can be deleted by delete []r.

40. What is conversion constructor?    
A conversion constructor is a single-parameter constructor that is declared without the function specifier 'explicit'. The compiler uses conversion constructors to convert objects from the type of the first parameter to the type of the conversion constructor's class.To define implicit conversions, C++ uses conversion constructors, constructors that accept a single parameter and initialize an object to be a copy of that parameter.

41.What is a spanning Tree?
A spanning tree is a tree associated with a network. All the nodes of the graph appear on the tree once. A minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree organized so that the total edge weight between nodes is minimized.  

42. Why should we use data ware housing and how can you extract data for analysis with example?
If you want to get information on all the techniques of designing, maintaining, building and retrieving data, Data warehousing is the ideal method. A data warehouse is premeditated and generated for supporting the decision making process within an organization.
Here are some of the benefits of a data warehouse:

o With data warehousing, you can provide a common data model for different interest areas regardless of data's source. In this way, it becomes easier to report and analyze information.

o Many inconsistencies are identified and resolved before loading of information in data warehousing. This makes the reporting and analyzing process simpler.

o The best part of data warehousing is that the information is under the control of users, so that in case the system gets purged over time, information can be easily and safely stored for longer time period.

o Because of being different from operational systems, a data warehouse helps in retrieving data without slowing down the operational system.

o Data warehousing enhances the value of operational business applications and customer relationship management systems.

o Data warehousing also leads to proper functioning of support system applications like trend reports, exception reports and the actual performance analyzing reports.
Data mining is a powerful new technology to extract data for analysis.

43.Explain recursive function & what is the data structures used to perform recursion?
a) A recursive function is a function which calls itself.
b) The speed of a recursive program is slower because of stack overheads. (This attribute is evident if you run above C program.)
c) A recursive function must have recursive conditions, terminating conditions, and recursive expressions.

Stack data structure . Because of its LIFO (Last In First Out) property it remembers its caller so knows whom to return when the function has to return. Recursion makes use of system stack for storing the return addresses of the function calls. Every recursive function has its equivalent iterative (non-recursive) function. Even when such equivalent iterative procedures are written, explicit stack is to be used.

44.Differentiate between Compiler and Interpreter?

An interpreter reads one instruction at a time and carries out the actions implied by that instruction. It does not perform any translation. But a compiler translates the entire instructions

45.What is scope of a variable?
Scope refers to the visibility of variables. It is very useful to be able to limit a variable's scope to a single function. In other words, the variable wil have a limited scope

46.What is an interrupt?
   Interrupt is an asynchronous signal informing a program that an event has occurred. When a program receives an interrupt signal, it takes a specified action. 

47.What is user defined exception in Java?
The keywords used in java application are try, catch and finally are used in implementing used-defined exceptions. This Exception class inherits all the method from Throwable class.

48.What is java Applet?
Applet is java program that can be embedded into HTML pages. Java applets runs on the java enables web browsers such as mozila and internet explorer. Applet is designed to run remotely on the client browser, so there are some restrictions on it. Applet can't access system resources on the local computer. Applets are used to make the web site more dynamic and entertaining. 

49.What do you know about the garbage collector?

Garbage collection is the systematic recovery of pooled computer storage that is being used by a program when that program no longer needs the storage. This frees the storage for use by other programs 
(or processes within a program). It also ensures that a program using increasing amounts of pooled storage does not reach its quota (in which case it may no longer be able to function). 

Garbage collection is an automatic memory management feature in many modern programming languages, such as Java and languages in the .NET framework. Languages that use garbage collection are often interpreted or run within a virtual machine like the JVM. In each case, the environment that runs the code is also responsible for garbage collection.

50.Write a Binary Search program
int binarySearch(int arr[],int size, int item)
int left, right, middle;
left = 0;
right = size-1;

while(left <= right)
middle = ((left + right)/2);

if(item == arr[middle])

if(item > arr[middle])
left = middle+1;
right = middle-1;


51.What are enumerations?
An enumeration is a data type, used to declare variable that store list of names. It is act like a database, which will store list of items in the variable. example: enum shapes{triangle, rectangle,...

52.What is static identifier?
The static identifier is used for initializing only once, and the value retains during the life time of the program / application. A separate memory is allocated for ‘static’ variables. This value can be used between function calls. The default value of an uninitialized static variable is zero. A function can also be defined as a static function, which has the same scope of the static variable. 

53.What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is the science of enabling secure communications between a sender and one or more recipients. This is achieved by the sender scrambling a message (with a computer program and a secret key) and leaving the recipient to unscramble the message (with the same computer program and a key, which may or may not be the same as the sender's key).
There are two types of cryptography: Secret/Symmetric Key Cryptography and Public Key Cryptography

54.What is encryption?

Encryption is the transformation of information from readable form into some unreadable form.
55.What is decryption?
Decryption is the reverse of encryption; it's the transformation of encrypted data back into some intelligible form.
56.What exactly is a digital signature?
Just as a handwritten signature is affixed to a printed letter for verification that the letter originated from its purported sender, digital signature performs the same task for an electronic message. A digital signature is an encrypted version of a message digest, attached together with a message.

Saturday, 19 August 2017

ट्रेनों की तरह HRTC की बसों में भी मिलेगा पैक्ड फ़ूड

हिमाचल सरकार अब ट्रेनों में मिलने वाली सुविधा HRTC की बसों में मुहईया करने की तयारी कर रही है। अब आप एचआरटीसी की बसों में पैक्ड फूड का मज़्ज़ा ले सकेंगे। जानकारी के अनुसार सोशल मीडिया पर खाने की क्वालिटी को लेकर लोगों की शिकायत पर यह फैसला लिया गया है। बता दें की सबसे जायदा परेशानी हिमाचल से बहार जाने वाले यात्रियों को होती है खासकर चंडीगढ़ और दिल्ली रूट पर। बहुत टाइम यात्रि खाने के महंगे रेट और घटिया क्वालिटी से परेशान हैं। पैक्ड फ़ूड मिलने से काफी हद तक इस समस्या का हल हो जाएगा। इस से लोगों और HRTC दोनों का फ़ायदा है। 

यह सब मिलेगा पैक्ड फ़ूड में

पैक्ड फ़ूड में आपको दो सैंडविच, पनीर कटलेट और पानी की बोतल मिलेगी। जिसकी कीमत सिर्फ 60 रुपये होगी। पहले चरण में लंबे रूटों पर चलने वाली लगभग 250 बसों में यह सेवा आरंभ की जाएगी।
परिवहन मंत्री जीएस बाली ने यह एलान नाहन में एक कार्यक्रम दौरान किया । कार्यक्रम के बाद पत्रकारों को संबोधित करते हुए जीएस बाली कहा कि टैक्सी चालक और निजी बस ऑपरेटरों के चालकों को दुर्घटना में सुविधा नहीं मिल रही है जिसके लिए सरकार नई योजना शुरू करेगी। ताकि निजी चालकों को भी वन टाइम कंपनसेशन मिल सके। इससे हिमाचल प्रदेश के लगभग चार लाख वाहन चालकों को फायदा होगा।

Thursday, 20 July 2017

shiv tandav stotram

Shiv Tandav Stotra in Sanskrit-Hindi Lyrics with easy readble format

||सार्थशिवताण्डवस्तोत्रम् ||

||श्रीगणेशाय नमः ||

जटा टवी गलज्जल प्रवाह पावितस्थले, गलेऽवलम्ब्य लम्बितां भुजङ्ग तुङ्ग मालिकाम् |
डमड्डमड्डमड्डमन्निनाद वड्डमर्वयं, चकार चण्डताण्डवं तनोतु नः शिवः शिवम् ||१||

जटा कटा हसंभ्रम भ्रमन्निलिम्प निर्झरी, विलो लवी चिवल्लरी विराजमान मूर्धनि |
धगद् धगद् धगज्ज्वलल् ललाट पट्ट पावके किशोर चन्द्र शेखरे रतिः प्रतिक्षणं मम ||२||

धरा धरेन्द्र नंदिनी विलास बन्धु बन्धुरस् फुरद् दिगन्त सन्तति प्रमोद मानमानसे |
कृपा कटाक्ष धोरणी निरुद्ध दुर्धरापदि क्वचिद् दिगम्बरे मनो विनोदमेतु वस्तुनि ||३||

लता भुजङ्ग पिङ्गलस् फुरत्फणा मणिप्रभा कदम्ब कुङ्कुमद्रवप् रलिप्तदिग्व धूमुखे |
मदान्ध सिन्धुरस् फुरत् त्वगुत्तरीयमे दुरे मनो विनोद मद्भुतं बिभर्तु भूतभर्तरि ||४||

सहस्र लोचनप्रभृत्य शेष लेखशेखर प्रसून धूलिधोरणी विधूस राङ्घ्रि पीठभूः |
भुजङ्ग राजमालया निबद्ध जाटजूटक श्रियै चिराय जायतां चकोर बन्धुशेखरः ||५||

ललाट चत्वरज्वलद् धनञ्जयस्फुलिङ्गभा निपीत पञ्चसायकं नमन्निलिम्प नायकम् |
सुधा मयूखले खया विराजमानशेखरं महाकपालिसम्पदे शिरोज टालमस्तु नः ||६||

कराल भाल पट्टिका धगद् धगद् धगज्ज्वल द्धनञ्जयाहुती कृतप्रचण्ड पञ्चसायके |
धरा धरेन्द्र नन्दिनी कुचाग्र चित्रपत्रक प्रकल्प नैक शिल्पिनि त्रिलोचने रतिर्मम |||७||

नवीन मेघ मण्डली निरुद् धदुर् धरस्फुरत्- कुहू निशीथि नीतमः प्रबन्ध बद्ध कन्धरः |
निलिम्प निर्झरी धरस् तनोतु कृत्ति सिन्धुरः कला निधान बन्धुरः श्रियं जगद् धुरंधरः ||८||

प्रफुल्ल नीलपङ्कज प्रपञ्च कालिम प्रभा- वलम्बि कण्ठकन्दली रुचिप्रबद्ध कन्धरम् |
स्मरच्छिदं पुरच्छिदं भवच्छिदं मखच्छिदं गजच्छि दांध कच्छिदं तमंत कच्छिदं भजे ||९||

अखर्व सर्व मङ्गला कला कदंब मञ्जरी रस प्रवाह माधुरी विजृंभणा मधुव्रतम् |
स्मरान्तकं पुरान्तकं भवान्तकं मखान्तकं गजान्त कान्ध कान्त कं तमन्त कान्त कं भजे ||१०||

जयत् वदभ्र विभ्रम भ्रमद् भुजङ्ग मश्वस – द्विनिर्ग मत् क्रमस्फुरत् कराल भाल हव्यवाट् |
धिमिद्धिमिद्धिमिध्वनन्मृदङ्गतुङ्गमङ्गल ध्वनिक्रमप्रवर्तित प्रचण्डताण्डवः शिवः ||११||

स्पृषद्विचित्रतल्पयोर्भुजङ्गमौक्तिकस्रजोर्- – गरिष्ठरत्नलोष्ठयोः सुहृद्विपक्षपक्षयोः |
तृष्णारविन्दचक्षुषोः प्रजामहीमहेन्द्रयोः समप्रवृत्तिकः ( समं प्रवर्तयन्मनः) कदा सदाशिवं भजे ||१२||

कदा निलिम्पनिर्झरीनिकुञ्जकोटरे वसन् विमुक्तदुर्मतिः सदा शिरः स्थमञ्जलिं वहन् |
विमुक्तलोललोचनो ललामभाललग्नकः शिवेति मंत्रमुच्चरन् कदा सुखी भवाम्यहम् ||१३||

इदम् हि नित्यमेवमुक्तमुत्तमोत्तमं स्तवं पठन्स्मरन्ब्रुवन्नरो विशुद्धिमेतिसंततम् |
हरे गुरौ सुभक्तिमाशु याति नान्यथा गतिं विमोहनं हि देहिनां सुशङ्करस्य चिंतनम् ||१४||

पूजा वसान समये दशवक्त्र गीतं यः शंभु पूजन परं पठति प्रदोषे |
तस्य स्थिरां रथगजेन्द्र तुरङ्ग युक्तां लक्ष्मीं सदैव सुमुखिं प्रददाति शंभुः ||१५||

इति श्रीरावण- कृतम् शिव- ताण्डव- स्तोत्रम् सम्पूर्णम्

Monday, 1 May 2017

Top SEO Interview Questions & Answers You Must Read Before Your Big Day

*Phone rings* Tring Tring

It is hiring from the company you have had your eye on for a while. The job role is perfect for you. However, you have just been told that they would like you to come in for an SEO interview. How do you prepare for that? What are the SEO Interview Questions they are going to probably ask you?

Undoubtedly, it is a herculean task to find talent. Good talent is nearly impossible, especially when it comes to internet marketing and SEO where there are far too many people who can talk the theory but fail when it comes to execution. Therefore, the interviewer before hiring the employee will make sure he/she is well-acquainted with the concepts of Search Engine Optimization.
We have come up with a list of SEO Job Interview Questions and Answers that you should read before going for an SEO interview!

Knowledge-Based SEO Interview Questions and Answers

Here are some of the basic questions, an interviewer can ask in order to check your knowledge about SEO:

Q 1: What do you understand by the term “SEO”?

Ans: SEO abbreviated form of “Search Engine Optimization”. It is the set of process on account of which a web page or website is being optimized that helps it to enhance their visibility or ranking on top in SERPs (Search Engine Result Pages).

Q 2: What will you do to make a website search engine friendly?

Ans: Few of the main elements that make a website search engine friendly are word count, anchor text, backlinks, outbound links, keyword etc.

Q 3: Do you know about the types of SEO?

Ans: There are majorly two types of SEO that are being practiced namely On-Page SEO and Off-Page SEO.
On-Page SEO
It is the process of optimizing a website that includes on-site work like writing title, content, Meta tags, ALT tag, and description along with ensuring web-page’s design and code that can be indexed and crawled by search engines properly.
Off-Page SEO
It is a method of earning backlinks from various websites with a motive to improve the ranking of the site. This method includes various SEO steps like article submission, blog posting, forum, Press release submission, classified, and miscellaneous.

Q 4: Are you aware of SEO techniques?

Ans: There are two SEO techniques: White Hat SEO and Black Hat SEO or Negative SEO.

Q 5: Best way of getting a natural backlink to your site.

Ans: Some of the best ways of getting a natural backlink to your site are blog commenting, article marketing, social networking site profile, link exchange, etc.

Q 6: What will you do for the company website you are working for, decides to move all the contents to a new domain?

Ans: In that case, it would be important to update the previous site with a permanent redirect i.e 301 redirection to the new pages. After that, all the previous content should be taken down in order to avoid duplication of the content.

Q 7: What are some external but important factors which impact the ranking?

Ans: Some of the external factors are time spent on the site, page views per visit, bounce rate, and returning visitors.

Q 8: How to cross check if SEO campaign is working or not?

Ans: Firstly, an attempt would be made to search all the search engines employing relevant key phrases and keywords that are to be optimized. After the analysis, the results will point out whether the methods of optimization have worked or not. The report is to be analyzed on a regular basis. Also, another aspect of website statistics would also be taken care of which talks about the origin of the traffic.

Q 9: SEO Blogs you read to keep yourself updated.

Ans: Blogs to keep yourself updated are:
  • Search Engine Journal
  • MOZ
  • SEOSmarty
  • Search Engine Land
  • Jimboykins

Q 10: How many types of Meta Tags are there in SEO and what are their characters limits?

Ans: There are two types of Meta tags in SEO:
  • Description Meta tag: 150 characters limits
  • Keyword Meta tag: 200 characters limits

Q 11: How you will start keyword research? Which tools would you use for doing it?

Ans: First of all, you have to decide your topic that might bring traffic to your website. For that, you can use Google Trends or leverage on Twitter’s trending topics (based on geographical locations) to find the best possible topic.
Few of the tools to decide keywords are,, and Google Keyword Planner to find related keywords as well as their search volume.

Q 12: Differentiate between Dofollow and Nofollow.

Dofollow link
It is a kind of hyperlink which enhances the ranking of your site as it acts as a backlink that is counted by search engines.
Nofollow link
An HTML attribute value used to instruct search engine bots that a hyperlink should not influence the ranking of the link target in search engine’s index.

Q 13: What do you understand by Keyword streaming?

Ans: Keyword Streaming means analyzing and selecting the best keyword for your website and targeting to your website. One reduces each word to its stem. For instance, “investigating”, “investigates”, “investigated” all become just the root word or stem “investigate” in a search index.
This is used for search functionality which means enabling any form of the search term to find all variations of the supplied keyword. It thus improves the search experience.

Q 14: What is Canonical issue? How will you resolve them?

Ans: The Canonical issue relates to duplicate pages. For instance, if a site has 2 pages of same content but different URLs and you can’t redirect it then you use a canonical tag. It is to be used in the head section on your site.
For fixing a canonical issue, you have to do a canonical redirect the visitors to a correct version when they try to go to the wrong URL.

Q 15: How will you check the number of backlinks to your competitor’s site?

Ans: Using link operator on Google and various external tools like Backlink finder, Open Site Explorer, Backlink Watch, Alexa etc, one can know the number of backlinks to their competitor’s site.

Commonly Expected SEO Interview Questions and Answers 2016

There are few questions interviewer will ask you irrespective of the fact which SEO-based profile you have applied for. Some of these are:

Q 1: What attracted you to SEO industry?

Ans: Honesty is the key here!
Think why did you apply for this job in the first place? Because of the industry’s reputation? Or maybe the fact it offers exceptional growth? Or the high-paying jobs in this industry?
The interviewer, here, wants to test your commitment to the industry and find out what makes you the best pick out of the pool available. Therefore, respond with full enthusiasm and commitment for the sector overall. You can say that you are attracted to the industry because of good reputation and lots of opportunities available to progress your career, expand your knowledge, and learn new skills.
This answer will reflect your commitment to the sector in long run and your wish to constantly improve and enhance your skills.

Q 2: What do you enjoy most about working in SEO?

Ans: It is good to be honest here. You have to consider which tasks you look forward to in your day and which areas you enjoy working in (particularly). However, be careful that you don’t go for the ‘easy’ tasks only. Talk about challenges you would like to take.

Q 3: How do you think your experience of digital marketing will benefit our business?

Ans: This question is all about your personal experience and what you have done in the past and how your skills could benefit the business overall. Also, talk about your particular SEO story that helped you learn a lot of things and how this particular knowledge could help the business.
You need to answer in what ways you are different from the rest of the applicants, therefore, think carefully about what makes you unique in terms of experience, knowledge, and skills. Also, how it will have a positive effect on the business.

Q 4: Where do you see yourself in five years’ time in the digital marketing sector?

Ans: When interviewers ask this question, they aren’t waiting for you to talk about your personal aspirations. When a company hires a new employee, they are making a huge investment!
Therefore, the hiring managers want to know if you are worth the investment or not. They want to know if you will stick to the company along with growing professionally. They want to test you on your problem-solving skills.
Talk about the following things:
  • Interest in the profile you have applied for
  • Core strengths and how they can benefit the company
  • Professional goals

Personalized Interviews Questions

SEO Fresher Jobs

When preparing to apply for SEO Fresher job, you need to be thorough with the basics first. Have a glance at SEO interview questions and answers for freshers before appearing for the interview. 

Q 1: What are you looking forward to working in SEO field?

Ans: Since you are a fresher, you are always expected to be energetic and open to learning. Therefore, you should answer this question openness to learning more, talk about what interest you the most. Is it on-page SEO or off-page SEO?
Most of the SEO interview questions for freshers are theoretical as they have a minimum or no experience before. So you can read the above-suggested Search Engine Optimization questions!

SEO Executive Jobs

Q 1: What steps would you follow to optimize a website?

Ans: For optimizing a website, following steps, should be followed:
  • Keyword Research
All the search optimization begins with keyword research. It is important to have an understanding of the current search landscape and your keywords. This will help at the beginning of any marketing strategy as well as occasional re-evaluate. Since these numbers change continuously, therefore, you have to keep yourself up-to-date.
It is crucial to use Google Keyword Planner, begin with your location and industry.
  • Craft outstanding content with keywords
While creating content, you must keep the keywords in mind. The main motive of the content is to reach the audience who are looking for it. With proper keywords, you can help content reach effectively. Try to use keywords as often as possible but naturally.
  • Speed up your website
Slow running websites are a curse. It is important to make sure your page is always up to speed. You can do this by a tool called Google Speed Insights. This tool will help tell if your page is running slow and give suggestions on how to speed it up.
  • Update page titles
Most of the businesses have page titles as simply their business’s name. The best search names usually follow the city + service format. For instance, Delhi – Digital Vidya is a page title which could be the best search name.

Q 2: What are the common SEO mistakes while producing digital content?

Ans: People usually make the following common SEO mistakes while writing content on digital platforms:
  • Using wrong words
  • Problems with redirection
  • Falling prey of SEO myths

SEO Specialist Jobs

Q 1: Have you ever dealt with link penalties? How?

Ans: After identifying the link, try to remove them and disavow the one that can’t be deleted.
Dealing with link penalties includes the following steps:
  • Find all the backlinks: This can be done with the help of Google Webmaster Tools.
  • Identify the bad backlinks: One of the best tools to identify bad backlinks is Monitor backlinks.
  • Request removal of the bad links: All the requests must be sent from the email address of the website. After that, you have to keep track of your requests and see who has opened your emails.
  • Disavow the ones that can’t be removed: Before you create a disavow report, it is important to remove all the backlinks. Add tags to all of the links you could not delete by using “disavow” tag.

Q 2: After implementing distinct SEO methods for a site, if you haven’t got any improvements. What would be your next step?

Ans: The first step would be troubleshooting for the issues. Firstly, it is essential to note if it is a new project or not. The next step would include analyzing relevant keywords and phrases for the site that needs to be optimized along with studying competitive analysis.
There could be two cases:
The website and pages have been indexed and appear in the first 10 pages of SERPs but not in the top three pages, so there it needs some transformation on page descriptions, page titles, page text etc. However, if the website is still not indexed or dropped from the index, it might comprise of some big issues and a total re-work might be required.

SEO Manager Jobs

If you are applying for the profile of an SEO Manager, there are certain SEO interview questions and answers for experienced that you should be well-versed with before appearing for the interview. 

Q 1: To increase rankings, what things should not be performed to avoid a penalty?

Ans: A person can use Google Disavow tool to remove low quality and spammy links. After getting rid of all the bad quality links, you will create authentic and good quality links from white hat SEO techniques which are approved by Google Penguin and Panda like the link from social media, forum posting, article submission, guest posting, and blog commenting.

Q 2: Suppose a user gave us a negative feedback on our Facebook page, how would you handle that?

Ans: Positive feedbacks increase the motivation of the company and reflect the strengths of the company but tackling with negative feedbacks showcase the problem solving and online reputation management skills of the company. Acknowledging the negative feedback and going in details of the problem to find the root cause is the main motive. This will increase the retention of the existing customers and thereby, will help in customer satisfaction.

Q 3: Have you made any mistakes in your SEO based profiles and how did you rectify them?

Ans: “To err is human”
Nobody is perfect and we all make mistakes. The interviewer here expects you to be honest and is testing your problem-solving skills. Like for example, people usually make these very basic mistakes in their SEO profile:
Make it difficult for search engine crawlers to index and thereby, rank your site. Most of the people are unaware of the fact that they have to add their sites to Google Webmaster tool (which is now called Search Console). You can rectify this mistake by clicking on ‘add a website’ option to the Google Webmaster tool.
These are some of the SEO interview questions and answers for experienced candidates or  Search Engine Optimization ( SEO ) experts.

Pro Tips for SEO Interview

Here are some of the tips you should work on:

1. Updated LinkedIn profile

Don’t have a LinkedIn profile? Do you think you are fit for digital marketing industry? Create your LinkedIn profile, work upon your online presence.

2. Implement your learnings

Execution is everything in SEO based profiles. Talk about how you have attempted to implement your learnings from industry experts in your work. You can also talk about it worked for you and what did you benefit from it along with your own improvisations. This will not only help you with bonus points but interviewer will understand your attitude and mindset.

3. Honesty works everywhere

If you know something, talk about it and explain it. But if you don’t know something, admit it and let them know that you will add that to your learning list.

4. Research about the company

Know the inside out of the company you are applying for. What all services do they provide? Do they have a blog? What is the most famous blog post they did?

5. Know your strengths

Know about your strengths in SEO field. Talk about them with confidence.

6. Share your knowledge

Insecurity has never done good to anyone. Therefore, share your knowledge and experience openly and at the same time be open to new discussions and ideas.

7. Don’t sound money minded

Money is a motivational factor. Accepted. But being money minded has never shown great results. Therefore, try to refrain yourself about money right at the beginning of the interview.

8. Smile your way

A pleasing personality will always add on to your credentials. It reflects your self-confidence and will bring positive vibes!

Source:-  digital vidya